sábado, 12 de abril de 2014

Effect of radiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery on 10-year recurrence and 20-year breast cancer mortality: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 8135 women in 22 randomised trials

Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group

Tomado de The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 

Summary

Background
Postmastectomy radiotherapy was shown in previous meta-analyses to reduce the risks of both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in all women with node-positive disease considered together. However, the benefit in women with only one to three positive lymph nodes is uncertain. We aimed to assess the effect of radiotherapy in these women after mastectomy and axillary dissection.
Methods
We did a meta-analysis of individual data for 8135 women randomly assigned to treatment groups during 1964—86 in 22 trials of radiotherapy to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes after mastectomy and axillary surgery versus the same surgery but no radiotherapy. Follow-up lasted 10 years for recurrence and to Jan 1, 2009, for mortality. Analyses were stratified by trial, individual follow-up year, age at entry, and pathological nodal status.
Findings
3786 women had axillary dissection to at least level II and had zero, one to three, or four or more positive nodes. All were in trials in which radiotherapy included the chest wall, supraclavicular or axillary fossa (or both), and internal mammary chain. For 700 women with axillary dissection and no positive nodes, radiotherapy had no significant effect on locoregional recurrence (two-sided significance level [2p]>0·1), overall recurrence (rate ratio [RR], irradiated vs not, 1·06, 95% CI 0·76—1·48, 2p>0·1), or breast cancer mortality (RR 1·18, 95% CI 0·89—1·55, 2p>0·1). For 1314 women with axillary dissection and one to three positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0 0="" 1133="" 1314="" 1772="" 2p="0·04).</div" 95="" again="" and="" axillary="" both="" breast="" cancer="" ci="" cyclophosphamide="" dissection="" fluorouracil="" for="" four="" given="" groups="" in="" locoregional="" methotrexate="" more="" mortality="" nodes="" of="" or="" overall="" p="" positive="" radiotherapy="" recurrence="" reduced="" systemic="" tamoxifen="" them="" therapy="" these="" trial="" trials="" was="" were="" which="" with="" women="">
Interpretation
After mastectomy and axillary dissection, radiotherapy reduced both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in the women with one to three positive lymph nodes in these trials even when systemic therapy was given. For today's women, who in many countries are at lower risk of recurrence, absolute gains might be smaller but proportional gains might be larger because of more effective radiotherapy.
Funding
Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council.

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